This is a useful techniques for the separation and Identification of a components of a mixture. It is a separation techniques where the stationary phase is present as, or on a plane. The airplane can be a newspaper serving as such, or impregnated by material as the stationary bed. The main objective of paper chromatography is to obtained well defined, well separated areas. The principle involved is Partition chromatography wherein the substances are dispersed or partitioned between liquid phases. One stage is the water, which can be held in the pores of the filter paper used and other is that the mobile phase which goes over the paper. The chemicals in the mixture get separated because of differences in their affinity towards water in stationary phase and mobile phase solvents through the motion of mobile phase under the capillary action of pores in the paper.
The principle may also be adsorption chromatography between liquid and solid phases, whereas the static phase is the solid surface of paper and the liquid phase is of mobile phase. But the majority of the applications of Paper Chromatography work on the principle of partition chromatography, i.e. partitioned between to liquid phases. The distance between the point of application of this sample and the ring separation zone, is known as Rf value. Each compound components has a certain Rf value. Hence it is used as an identification value. Those chemical elements with reduced affinity and adsorption toward the stationary phase travel or move faster, while those with greater affinity adsorption towards the stationary phase move or traveling slower. The stationary phase is present as, or on a plane. The airplane can be a cellulose filter paper acts as a stationary phase where the separation of compounds happens. Instance of solvent used include water, methanol, acetone, acetic acid .
This is based upon the complexity of the mix, solvent, paper, etc. But generally ascending kind or radial type chromatography are used since they are simple to do, manage, less time-consuming and give chromatogram faster. Filter paper is chosen based on pore size, the quality of the sample to be separated, along with style of development. Preparation of sample Preparation of sample involves dissolution of sample in appropriate solvent used in creating mobile stage. The solvent used should be inert with the sample below analysis. Spotting of sample on the newspaper Patches must be spotted at appropriate position on the paper rather with a plantar tube. Development of chromatogram Sample spotted paper is exposed to development by immersing it in the mobile phase. The mobile phase moves over the sample on the newspaper beneath the capillary action of paper. Paper Chromatography do not occupy much space. compared to additional analytical procedures or equipments.